1 what is philosophy?
From The Glass House Philosopher 1st October 1999:
When I checked my e-mail this morning there were two questions for Ask a Philosopher. Callie asked me, 'How does Greek philosophy affect the way we live today?' Wayne asked, 'What is Philosophy?' I wonder, Wayne, if you've been following this note book! Callie, your question is a pretty tough one too.
I'm going to try to give a straight answer to the 'What is Philosophy' question this time, and not try my usual evasive tactics. Maybe I can kill two birds with one stone. Let's see how it goes!
The Greeks discovered something. Something immense, mind-blowing. They discovered the power of human reason. To begin with, they used this power in a simple, direct way by putting forward ever bolder theories about the nature of the physical world. Philosophers like Thales and Anaximander were doing what we would now call physics. By the time of Aristotle, however, the use of reason had become highly subtle and refined. Aristotle's approach to analysing a concept or a problem is one you might find in any academic philosophy journal today.
Philosophy is all about making our beliefs consistent. You can take in any amount of information, but that won't help if your beliefs clash with one another. The early Greek physicists looked at the Creation myths that were current at the time and saw a mass of irrational assumptions. Like the stories we tell to children about Santa Claus and the Tooth Fairy. So they set about trying to tell a story that gave a consistent account of cause and effect. Where did the Cosmos come from? It was formed, they said, from stuff. The same stuff is in me or you, or a rock or a tree, or the Moon and the stars.
Here's an example of the kind of thing I mean by 'making our beliefs consistent'. We believe in cause and effect. We ourselves are part of the universe, subject to the same immutable laws of nature as rocks, or trees, or stars. We also believe that when a person commits a crime, they deserve to be punished. The combination of those two beliefs is a practical, as well as a philosophical problem: the problem of 'freedom of the will'.
We use all sorts of concepts without fully understanding them, concepts like 'freedom', or 'self', or 'knowledge', or 'explanation', or 'truth'. Because of our misunderstandings our thoughts get tied up in ever tighter knots.
It's true that a lot of philosophy is about repairing the damage done by the failed attempts of previous philosophers. Some problems have a long history going right back to the Greeks. But human curiosity is insatiable and we will not accept being told that it's better not to ask questions in the first place. We are no longer children who believe in the Tooth Fairy. We have grown up. And we demand to know.
I think that the way we live today has inherited a strong bias from Greek philosophy. The bias is towards logical analysis or breaking a problem down into its elements. It is an approach which has made possible the huge advances in science and technology. One can only speculate how things might have been if our culture had been dominated instead by the holistic, synoptic bias of Indian philosophy. Popular writers such as Fritjof Capra, Alan Watts, and Robert Pirsig have challenged the Western, analytic approach, and its consequences for science and society.
The best philosophy, I believe, succeeds in synthesizing the analytic and the synoptic approaches. Reason and logical analysis are tools that the philosopher cannot do without. However, they are only a means to an end. The goal of the philosopher must always be to gain a vision of the whole. To achieve true consistency of thought, we need to think things together rather than apart. That is why for me metaphysics, or the quest for a definition of the nature of reality — the nature of Being — will always be the core of philosophy.