Big Cats


During the the time that the ground-breaking Pathways to Philosophy distance learning program has been running, students from around the world have produced many fine examples of philosophical writing.

Reproduced here are essay portfolios which have received the Associate Award, as well as dissertations successfully submitted for the Fellowship Award of the International Society for Philosophers.

For examples of shorter essays by students taking the six Pathways to Philosophy programs, follow the links at Pathways to Philosophy: the six programs. A selection of Pathways essays can also be found at Pathways to Philosophy: Essays.

All work is copyright of the original authors. No material may be transmitted or reproduced without permission. For further information, e-mail

Geoffrey Klempner

Director of Studies

Associate Award

Fellowship Award


Paul Meakin: Associate Award

Essay One Heidegger, Dasein and the quest for authentic Being-in-the-world

Essay Two 'I am Condemned to be free': Sartre, Freedom and Bad faith

Essay Three 'Hell is other people': Sartre and being-for-others

Essay Four Generating a meaningful existence: A Nietzschean based interpretation


Mary Jennings: Associate Award

Essay One Doubt, certainty and knowledge in Descartes and Merleau-Ponty

Essay Two Justice and the Other in Levinas Totality and Infinity

Essay Three Heidegger's Dasein and Cartesian scepticism

Essay Four Heidegger's notion of Befindlichkeit in Being and Time


Andrew Watson: Associate Award

Essay One Plato's view of the fine arts in the Republic

Essay Two Plato's theory of divine inspiration (mania)

Essay Three A Comparison of Plotinus' philosophy of art and beauty with that of Plato

Essay Four Mimesis in Aristotle and Pollock


Kenneth Head: Associate Award

Essay One Does Life Have a Meaning?

Essay Two The Status of Religious Language

Essay Three Moral Complexity in the Making and Keeping of Promises

Essay Four Personal Autonomy and Individual Moral Growth


Stuart Hopkins: Associate Award

Essay One Justice and Morality in Plato's Republic

Essay Two Kant and the 'Morality of Anger'

Essay Three Hobbes and Absolute Sovereignty

Essay Four Locke's Theory of Resistance


Tony Bellotti: Associate Award

Essay One Descartes' Method of Doubt

Essay Two Problems that arise from the incompatibility of Subjective and Objective knowledge

Essay Three Does Kant's theory of knowledge lead to solipsism?

Essay Four Schopenhauer's Criticism of Kant's Analysis of Object


Oliver Leech: Associate Award

Essay One The Mind-Body Problem

Essay Two Responses to the Doctrine of Mind-Body Identity

Essay Three A Response to Functionalism

Essay Four The Free Will-Determinism Problem in Greek Philosophy: Aristotle


Alan Bradnam: Associate Award

Essay One The Ultimate Nature of Matter

Essay Two Egocentric Subjectivism

Essay Three Truth and the Majority View

Essay Four The Moral Difference between Animals and Humans


Shirley Hughes: Associate Award

Essay One Why Does Being A Philosopher Help In Philosophical Practice?

Essay Two Proving A Moral Principle

Essay Three Rules and Exceptions

Essay Four Can Ethical Terms Be Defined?


Terence Kuch: Associate Award

Essay One The Peachum Dilemma: Are Emotions Ethically Significant?

Essay Two Moral Education and Emotional Lying

Essay Three Kierkegaard: "Love Thy Neighbour as Thyself" as a Basis for Ethics

Essay Four Schopenhauer: "The World as Will" as a Theology


Fr. Seamus Mulholland: Associate Award

Essay One The Beginnings of Greek Philosophy

Essay Two The Critical Philosophy of Immanuel Kant

Essay Three The Metaphysics of Duns Scotus

Essay Four The Contribution of Plato to Political Philosophy and the Search for the Common Good in Hobbes, De Tocqueville and Marx


John Eberts: Associate Award

Essay One Existential Human Existence

Essay Two Michel de Montainge: Introspection

Essay Three Immanuel Kant: Eighteenth Century Thought

Essay Four The Concept of Evil


Gordon Kennedy: Associate Award

Essay One The Significance of Philosophical Scepticism

Essay Two Berkeley's Idealism

Essay Three Personal Identity and Psychological Reductionism

Essay Four Temporal Becoming and the A- and B- Theories of Time


Justin Woods: Associate Award

Essay One Russell's Theory of Descriptions in 'On Denoting'

Essay Two Wittgenstein's Dilemma

Essay Three A.J. Ayer and the Verification Farcical

Essay Four Naïve Symbolism and the Metaphysics of Meaning


Neil Munro: Associate Award

Essay One Objectivity in History

Essay Two Causation in History

Essay Three The Value of History

Essay Four Counterfactualism in History


John Dudley: Associate Award

Essay One It's All in the Mind

Essay Two Words and Meaning

Essay Three Saying and Meaning

Essay Four Citizenship, Liberalism and the National Curriculum


Samuel Thorpe: Associate Award

Essay One The Case Against Science

Essay One The Foundation of Morality: Is Morality Subjective or Objective?

Essay One Xenophanes' Concept of God

Essay One The Nature of Faith


Jürgen Lawrenz: Associate Award

Essay One Arche and Apeiron in Early Presocratic Philosophy

Essay Two Kant's Metaphysics: End of the Road or Unfulfilled Future?

Essay Three Music, Truth, Profundity

Essay Four Fichte and Individuality


Curt Hayashida: Associate Award

Essay One The Problem of Evil

Essay Two Kane's Idea of Self-Forming Actions

Essay Three A Critique of Reformed Epistemology

Essay Four A Critique of Molinism


George Walendowski: Associate Award

Essay One The Milesian Philosophers: Founders of Western Thought

Essay Two Zeno's Paradoxes: Achilles and The Tortoise and The Dichotomy

Essay Three The Economic Ideas of Plato and Aristotle

Essay Four Commentaries Concerning Aristotle's Minor Works Relating To Melissus, Xenophanes and Gorgias


Tony Fahey: Fellowship Award

Dissertation Giambattista Vico on Language and Education (PDF format)


Martin Jenkins: Fellowship Award

Dissertation Aristocratic Radicalism or Anarchy? An Examination of Nietzsche's Doctrine of Will to Power (PDF format)


Peter Jones: Fellowship Award

Dissertation From Metaphysics to Mysticism: Exploring the Case for a Neutral Metaphysical Position (PDF format)


George Brooks: Fellowship Award

Dissertation Otto Bird's Dialectic Idea of Justice and Modern German Positive Law Theory (PDF format)


Samuel Michaelides: Fellowship Award

Dissertation Mary and the Philosophical Goose Chase: Physicalism and the Knowledge Argument (PDF format)


Mike Finch: Fellowship Award

Dissertation A Metaphysics of Distinction, Performance and Practice (PDF format)


Rachel Browne: Fellowship Award

Dissertation Ethical Relations (PDF format)


Jürgen Lawrenz: Fellowship Award

Dissertation Sources of Metaphysical Thinking in Presocratic Philosophy (PDF format)


George Walendowski: Fellowship Award

Dissertation General Perceptions of Justice and Justice as Perceived in Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Nichomachean Ethics (PDF format)


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Pathways teaching materials © G. Klempner 1995–2018
'Tile' photograph © G. Klempner 1999