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PHILOSOPHY PATHWAYS electronic journal

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P H I L O S O P H Y   P A T H W A Y S                   ISSN 2043-0728
http://www.philosophypathways.com/newsletter/

Issue number 24
27th January 2002

CONTENTS

I. 'On "The Cloud of Unknowing"' by Michael Brett

II. 'The Idea of Fellowship' by Katharine Hunt

III. Apology to Maushumi Guha!

-=-
I. 'ON "THE CLOUD OF UNKNOWING"' BY MICHAEL BRETT

One of the best known works of European Mysticism is 'The Cloud of Unknowing',
written in England between 1349 and 1395, by an unknown author who is thought
to have been the spiritual director of a monastery.

The book is a series of spiritual exercises which rest upon the belief in the
utter incomprehensibility of God. The natural facilities of intelligence are
impotent to comprehend the being of God because God's nature is essentially
different from the nature of man. Thus, any activity of the intelligence is a
hindrance in the prayer of contemplation, and gives error when contemplating
any idea of God.

However, the unknown writer of 'The Cloud', while laying stress upon God's
transcendence, is careful to show that man's soul is not separated from the
being of God. God is immanent in all things as well as transcendent above them.
God is the Unity embracing all things and sustaining all things.

The soul should by its own efforts, assisted by grace, move towards God. In
order to do this, the soul has to renounce all distractions and all discursive
workings of the mind. It should move towards God in "a cloud of unknowing":

     "If ever you should feel him or see him, it is fitting that
     is always in this cloud and this darkness" ('The Cloud of
     Unknowing' p.17).
     
     "The soul's effort is to persevere in this darkness, which
     is really a state of complete concentration upon the
     unconditioned and incomprehensible being of God ... as a
     reward the mind will be illuminated by Him" ('The Cloud of
     Unknowing" lxi).
     
Like the works of S.L. Frank, 'The Cloud of Unknowing was written during a time
of European catastrophe.

After 1330, England and much of Europe, was in the throes of the Black Death,
an outbreak of bubonic plague that reduced the population of Europe by a third.
It was the era when the new paintings on church walls showed the Dance Macabre,
the figure of Death as a skeleton dancing with rich and poor alike, and a
popular mass movement of ordinary people - the Flagellants - took to whipping
themselves in public to assuage God's anger. Other mass movements included
social uprisings, such as the Peasants Revolt of 1381, where a peasant army
seized London, beheaded the Archbishop of Canterbury and burned down the the
Savoy Palace.

On the frontiers, Muslim armies were overrunning Africa and parts of Europe
that had been Christian for centuries.

The spiritual leadership of Europe was in crisis. Two Popes both claimed to be
the legitimate heirs of St Peter. One was based in Avignon and the other in
Rome. In brief, all social institutions, including the Church, seemed to be
either in crisis or collapse, when - perhaps - the only thing left to rely on
was some kind of relationship with God. The purpose of the 'Cloud of Unknowing'
being to bring an individual as close to God, and as aware of His presence, as
was possible in life.

In 1942, Frank wrote in his notebook:

     "The link to God, life through love of God and trust in Him
     - this is like being in love, a possession of your soul,
     whereby you stop thinking and you perceive higher truth
     with your heart and not your mind" (Boobbyer 'SL Frank'
     p.188)."

In 1941, Frank wrote 'God with us'. Like 'The Cloud of Unknowing' it is not a
work of theology, but one of philosophy and mysticism. Indeed, 'God with us'
is, according to Boobbyer, "anti-dogmatic and hostile to conceptual theology."

"The central issue in religion," Frank wrote,

     "is that God reveals himself to the souls of people. They
     do not need rational proofs of God because knowledge of God
     is not primarily rational ... certainty in religious
     experience is a product of the inner self-revelation of
     God, who is the voice of conscience in the human heart ...
     a certain message from afar which has reached our soul from
     a region of being which is different from the ordinary human
     world" (Boobbyer p.189).
          
We know nothing of the writer of 'The Cloud of Unknowing' save that he lived in
a century of disease, disaster and war. Frank's life was not only adversely
affected by revolution, war and exile, but he also refused to take refuge in
the formulas of comfort of the societies around him. By remaining part of the
Russian Orthodox Church, into which he had been received in 1912, he was part
of something that was at least, in part, compromised and dominated by the
Soviet state that had expelled him from Russia in 1922. In the final analysis,
the only part of his religious life that was not part of a conflict was within
himself, and was his own personal desire, and experience of God.

Frank did not turn to conventional formulas, or comforts when considering his
life and the historical incidents that shaped it. For him, the Second World War
was not a War of Liberation, or part of a progressive development that somehow
justified its terrible loss of life and material destruction. The war was the
culmination of a "false road in European culture" (Boobbyer p.212).

Frank saw the War as "a product of the divergence of the Christian and humanist
currents in history." By this he meant that the Bolshevik Revolution was a
product of the secularization of European thought, as well as sociological
factors. He traced this, as well as the origins of the Second World War, to St
Augustine's rejection of the goodness of man.

From that point on, Frank argues, all subsequent movements - in this he
included the Renaissance and the Reformation - had to be declared by the power
of man against God. This, to paraphrase him, split European intellectual
history, and, by implication, placed God with those resisting progress and
change, causing those on the other side to regard personal morality as
something old fashioned at best, and reactionary at worst. To paraphrase him:
cruelty was established as a principle of modernization.

For the unknown writer of 'The Cloud of Unknowing' there were no 14th century
secular alternatives to religious faith in a time of crisis and catastrophe. As
a modern man, Frank had seen the alternatives, and rejected them. In a sense
both the author of the 'Cloud' and Frank are like Descartes, falling back to a
final position of "Cogito ergo sum." But this formulation would exclude the God
that they find in the centre of their lives and thoughts. Both Frank and the
'Cloud's author have abandoned formal theology, for a mystical belief in God.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Author Unknown 'The Cloud of Unknowing' Early English Text Society, London 1944.

Boobbyer, Philip 'S.L.Frank The Life and Work of a Russian Philosopher' Ohio
University Press 1995

(c) Michael Brett 2002

-=-

II. 'THE IDEA OF FELLOWSHIP' BY KATHARINE HUNT

     "Dear Geoffrey,
     
     "I read your correspondence with the Philosophical Society
     on page 127 of your online note book, and was inspired to
     write this piece. If you think it is useful, you would be
     welcome to use it in Pathways News or on one of your
     websites."
     
     ---
     
     "Fellowship is life, and lack of fellowship is death." -
     William Morris
     
     "...one of the members of the Philosophical Society expressed
     the view to me that the term 'fellowship' has 'fusty, old-
     fashioned and sexist connotations'" - Geoffrey Klempner
     'The Glass House Philosopher' online note book page 127
     (http://sophist.co.uk/glasshouse/notebook/page127.html).
     
Fusty? Old-fashioned? Sexist? I don't see 'fellowship' as sexist. If you were
going to use the word 'brotherhood', I suppose there would be bound to be some
objection. But I would understand 'fellowship' as referring to some kind of
relationship to my fellow humans. It's true that the word 'fellow' is
sometimes used to mean 'man', but it has many other uses.

'Fusty', in this context, is the same as 'old-fashioned', only a bit more
derogatory. So is 'fellowship' an old-fashioned idea? Yes! I think it is - but
only in the sense that virtue and honour and truth and justice also seem to
have become rather old-fashioned.

Fellowship is closely related to that other somewhat discredited form of
relationship - friendship. The current tendency is to believe that all close
and loving personal relationships must be sexual. This tendency is illustrated
in novels, films, magazines, TV, biographies of famous people, and filters down
into the way people deal with and talk about their own personal relationships.
As an example of this, over Christmas I watched on TV the film "Elizabeth",
which purports to be about the early years of Queen Elizabeth I's reign.
However, the film made me interested enough to start reading just a little
about the background history, and as soon as I started to do this, I realized
just how inaccurate the film was. One inaccuracy that illustrates my point, is
that the close relationship between Queen Elizabeth and her Court favourite
Robert Dudley is portrayed in the film as a sexual relationship; yet
authoritative sources agree that it is most unlikely this was the case.

Fellowship is perhaps not as close a relationship as that of loving-friendship;
but consequently it is possible to have fellowship with a larger number of
people. We could see it as a combination of friendship, and the sense of
belonging to a group working together for a common purpose. There is a sense of
mutual support, sympathy and understanding; the comfort of meeting with like
minds in a congenial atmosphere, to work together for a common aim. In this
individualistic age this is indeed an old-fashioned notion; but it is an
admirable one, and I hope that Pathways can revive it.

(c) Katharine Hunt 2002

-=-

III. APOLOGY TO MAUSHUMI GUHA

Issue 23 of 'Philosophy Pathways' which was sent out on
13th January included a piece about the new Pathways
mentors. I wrote:

     "MAUSHUMI GUHA gained his M.Phil at Cambridge University
     under the supervision of Jane Heal, and is now researching
     for his PhD at Jadavpur University, India, as well as
     holding a full- time lecturing post at the Scottish Church
     College and lecturing at Jadavpur. His main area of
     interest is in the Philosophy of Mind."

The next day, I received the following polite e-mail:

     "Hello! Thanks for sending me my first P-student. I got
     your News Issue as well. I thought I should let you know
     that there has been a small category mistake. Maushumi is
     female! The word comes from the Arabic 'mausam', meaning
     'monsoon'. I was born during the peak monsoon season in
     India, so like many women born during that season, I was
     called 'Maushumi'."

I made an immediate apology, and altered the archived version of 'Philosophy
Pathways' on the Pathways web site. But for the 500 or so recipients of the
newsletter, it was too late. Oh dear!

I wrote to Maushumi, "I am still smarting from embarrassment, following my
'category mistake'." It is interesting that the issue of sexism has been raised
in this issue of the Pathways newsletter. I would never have made my false
assumption with a 'Pat' or a 'Vivian' (my middle name, after the well known
explorer Vivian Fuchs) - So other issues are raised here as well.

(c) Geoffrey Klempner 2002

---------------------------------------------------------------
  Philosophy Pathways is the electronic newsletter for the
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  The views expressed in this newsletter do not necessarily
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