PHILOSOPHY PATHWAYS ISSN 2043-0728
Issue No. 215 4th September 2017
Special Russian Issue Edited by Grigoriy Nikitin and Craig Skinner
I. 'Epistemological, Logical and Semantic Problems of Creating Artificial Intelligence' by A.V. Sukhoverkhov and N.E. Spasova
II. 'The Place of Creativity in Scientific Knowledge' by E.V. Yakovleva and G.M. Nikitin
III. 'Contradiction Between Ethics and Law: Historical Survey and Present Position' by N.Yu. Embulayeva, L.S. Embulayeva and G.M. Nikitin
IV. 'Kuban State Agrarian University' by G.M. Nikitin
FROM THE LIST MANAGER
The 'Special Russian Issue' of Philosophy Pathways edited by Grigoriy Nikitin and Craig Skinner is published simultaneously with Issue 82 of Philosophy for Business edited by Daniel Silvermintz. In all, we have five papers by faculty members of Kuban State Agrarian University, three in this issue and two more in our sister publication.
In addition, Grigoriy Nikitin has contributed a short informative piece about Kuban State Agrarian University, which is included here as a Postscript.
All three articles address issues that would be instantly recognized by philosophy students and academics in any Western university.
A.V. Sukhoverkhov and N.E. Spasova describe John Searle's famous 'Chinese Room' thought experiment, and its impact on both computational and connectionist models of the brain. What more, if anything, is there to thinking and consciousness than the mere processing of digital inputs and outputs?
E.V. Yakovleva and G.M. Nikitin examine the role of creativity in scientific investigation, in relation to the work of Thomas Kuhn and Imre Lakatos. The authors argue that questioning the dominant paradigm in a given area of science is a creative process, even if at first sight this idea seems paradoxical.
The third article by G.M. Nikitin, and N.Yu. and L.S. Embulayeva focuses on a topic which English-speaking students of Jurisprudence know as the 'Hart-Devlin Controversy', the classic debate prompted by Lord Devlin's The Enforcement of Morals (1959) which argued that the law should play a positive role in enforcing the ordinary person's view about what is, or is not 'immoral'.
(c) Geoffrey Klempner 2017
I. 'EPISTEMOLOGICAL, LOGICAL AND SEMANTIC PROBLEMS OF CREATING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE' BY A.V. SUKHOVERKHOV AND N.E. SPASOVA
From ancient times to this day, philosophers and scientists have sought to understand human thinking and consciousness. Modern science tries to model the human brain and create technical devices that copy mental processes. Of course, this is a very difficult task, since many aspects of brain structure and function are unknown. However, what we do know allows us to begin the task. In this article we discuss the possibilities of creating artificial intelligence (AI) and the theoretical and practical difficulties that arise in its development [...]
(c) A.V. Sukhoverkhov and A.V. Spasova 2017
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II. 'THE PLACE OF CREATIVITY IN SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE' BY E.V. YAKOVLEVA AND G.M. NIKITIN
Progress in scientific understanding is a cumulative process characterized by systematic exploration of the implications arising from currently accepted theoretical foundations. Here, logical deduction is important. But when anomalies arise within the framework, modification or replacement of a theory may be needed, and this is nor entirely a matter of logic. In this article we consider the generation of new knowledge and understanding, including historical analysis, and review philosophical and scientific views from the new European philosophy up to the 20th Century. Prospects of research into creative activity in science are considered. We conclude that nonrational, creative thinking is a key element in scientific progress [...]
(c) E.V. Yakovleva and G.M. Nikitin 2017
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III. 'CONTRADICTION BETWEEN ETHICS AND LAW: HISTORICAL SURVEY AND PRESENT POSITION' BY N.Yu. EMBULAYEVA, L.S. EMBULAYEVA AND G.M. NIKITIN
The key socionormative regulators are morality and law. Performing similar functions, they compete cooperate and often conflict. This is due to the type of society, balance of social and political forces, degree of cohesion, and unity of society. In modern Russia, in conditions of growing social tension, alienation of people from the sources of power and their inability to influence decision-making, and regulation of public relations by law, the gap between law and morality widens [...]
(c) N.Yu. Embulayeva, L.S. Embulayeva and G.M. Nikitin 2017
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IV. 'KUBAN STATE AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY' BY G.M. NIKITIN
Kuban State Agrarian University is the largest center of science, education and innovation in the South Federal District, and is rated by the Ministry of Education as the best agrarian university in Russia. It is headed by the Kuban State Agrarian Scientific and Educational Association, which includes 29 agrarian organizations, 12 scientific research institutes of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and 12 colleges and technical schools of the province [...]
(c) G.M. Nikitin 2017