on this page

Or send us an email




Application form




Pathways programs

Letters to my students

How-to-do-it guide

Essay archive

Ask a philosopher

Pathways e-journal

Features page

Downloads page

Pathways portal



Pathways to Philosophy
Home



Geoffrey Klempner CV
G Klempner



International Society for Philosophers
ISFP site







PHILOSOPHY PATHWAYS electronic journal

[home]


P H I L O S O P H Y   P A T H W A Y S                   ISSN 2043-0728
http://www.philosophypathways.com/newsletter/

Issue number 183
28th February 2014

Edited by Erwin Laya, MAT

CONTENTS

I. 'What Is the Place of Death in the Human Predicament?' by Max
Malikow

II. 'The Social and Educative Role of Logic' by Yongho N. Nichodemus

III. 'The Bangsamoro Struggle and How Peace is to be Achieved: A
Reflection' by Stephanie A. Sabarita

-=-

EDITOR'S NOTE

The universal experience of human persons throughout the ages is that
knowledge of reality seems to be limitless and unending. In a word,
the more the person learns, the more there is to learn.

In this current issue of Philosophy Pathways, three Pathways
contributors will be sharing their reflections and views about the
continuous theme on death, education, and sustainable peace.

Death is a philosophic theme of a very special kind; this being so,
to philosophize or to meditate on the whole of existence, is
basically nothing more than to ponder death. This prompted Arthur
Schopenhauer to say that death is the inspired genius of philosophy
without which there would scarcely be any philosophy. It is for this
reason that there have been so many conceptions and theories of death
formulated by various thinkers throughout the ages. This is the object
of reflection that Max Malikow will be sharing in this issue.

Critical thinking is what education is all about. In the academic
institutions, students are challenged to question, examine, and
evaluate ideas and information. There is a higher expectation than
only absorbing information and acquiring knowledge. Students are
expected to carefully and personally understand what they see, hear,
and read. In short, the main goal of education is not only to teach
students what to thinkbut how to think, that is, how to effectively
deal with problems, analyze issues and make decisions. In line with
this, a scholar from the University of Yaounde 1, Dr. Yongho
Nichodemus, gives his brief analysis about the role of Logic in our
social and educational system.

Stephanie Sabarita, a student from Brokenshire College of Davao,
Philippines, focuses her reflection on identifying the root cause of
Mindanao conflict. She reflects that most of the conflicts in
Mindanao have been associated with the pursuit of their own
expression of ideals. It is the struggle of the Lumads or tribal
peoples for the recognition of their ancestral domains; the Muslim
Filipinos' assertion of their right to self-determination or
self-rule against colonial domination since Spanish rule; and the
Christian settlers also claim their right for land ownership. At the
end of her reflection, she emphasizes that peace is possible if the
basic rights of the tri-peoples are respected.

Erwin B. Laya, MAT

Email: erwinus_layaski@yahoo.com

About the Editor:
http://www.philosophypathways.com/newsletter/editor.html#laya

-=-

I. 'WHAT IS THE PLACE OF DEATH IN THE HUMAN PREDICAMENT?' BY MAX MALIKOW

     Life is not lost by dying! Life is lost Minute by minute,
     day by dragging day, In all the thousand, small, uncaring
     ways.
     -- Stephen Vincent Benet
     
     I'm not afraid of death, I just don't want to be there when
     it happens to me.
     -- Woody Allen
     
Death is 'the permanent cessation of all bodily processes' (American
Heritage Dictionary, 1973, 339). It does not exist on a continuum.
Just as it is impossible to be 'a little bit pregnant,' it is
impossible to be 'a little bit dead.' 'Temporarily dead' is as
oxymoronic as 'mostly dead.' (This negates Miracle Max's diagnosis of
Wesley in 'The Princess Bride.') In this essay death as a part of the
human predicament is considered in terms of two questions: (1) Why is
death often considered an unfortunate part of the human condition? (2)
How might the inevitability of death be favorably viewed?

Death as an Unfortunate Inevitability

In his treatise on death, Staring at the Sun: Overcoming the Terror
of Death, psychiatrist and philosopher Irvin Yalom posits:

     Self-awareness is a supreme gift, a treasure as precious as
     life. This is what makes us human. But it comes with a
     costly price: the wound of mortality. Our existence is
     forever shadowed by the knowledge that we will grow,
     blossom, and inevitability, diminish and die (2008, 1).
     
The philosopher Thomas Nagel wonders why the thought of death
generates anxiety for so many people:

     ...if death is the unequivocal and permanent end of our
     existence, the question arises whether it is a bad thing to
     die... most of us would not regard the temporary suspension
     of life, even for substantial intervals, as in itself a
     misfortune. If it ever happens that people could be frozen
     without reduction of conscious lifespan, it will be
     inappropriate to pity those who are temporarily out of
     circulation... none of us existed before we were born (or
     conceived), but few regard that as a misfortune
     (1997, 25, 27).
     
Like Nagel, Sigmund Freud questioned why death should be a disturbing
reality. In his essay, On Transience, he that admitted the sadness
experienced at the death of a loved one or contemplation of our own
end is an enigma:

     Mourning over the loss of something we have loved or
     admired seems so natural to the layman that he regards it
     as self-evident. But to psychologists, mourning is a great
     riddle, one of those phenomena which cannot themselves be
     explained but to which other obscurities can be traced
     back. We possess, as it seems, a certain amount of capacity
     for love -- what we call libido -- which in the earlier stages
     of development is directed toward our own ego... But why it
     is that this detachment of libido from its objects should
     be a painful process is a mystery to us and we have not
     hitherto been able to frame any hypothesis to account for
     it (2008, 12).
     
Perhaps it is the uncertainty of that which follows life that makes
death foreboding. Few have expressed this fearful apprehension as
eloquently as Shakespeare's Prince Hamlet:

     But that the dread of something after death, The
     undiscovered Country, from whose bourn No traveller
     returns, Puzzles the will And makes us bear those ills we
     have, Than fly to others that we know not of (Act III,
     scene 1).
     
In contrast to Hamlet, Epicurus expressed certainty that there is no
existence after life and therefore nothing to fear: 'Death does not
concern us, because as long as we exist, death is not here. And when
it does come, we no longer exist' (2013). The Stoic philosopher
Epictetus placed death in the category of things that do not emanate
from our own actions; even a person who commits suicide would have
died eventually. Since death is outside of our control it should not
be a source of rumination. He further believed that death itself is
not terrifying; the terror comes from how we choose to think about it:

     Men are disturbed, not by things, but by the principles and
     notions which they form concerning things. Death, for
     instance, is not terrible, else it would have appeared so
     to Socrates. But the terror consists of our notions of
     death that is terrible (135 A.C.E., 5).
     
Philosopher and theologian David Elton Trueblood pointed that death
is tragic only when it concludes a life that has not been lived well.
'It is surely not so bad to die, providing one has really lived before
he dies. Life need not be long to be good, for indeed it cannot be
long. The tragedy is not that all die, but that so many fail to
really live (1951, 164).

Death as a Favorable Inevitability

In his commencement address at Stanford University, entrepreneur and
inventor Steve Jobs, designated death as 'very likely the single best
invention of life' (2005). He spoke favorably of death with this
assessment:

     Remembering that I'll be dead soon is the single most
     important tool I've ever encountered to help me make the
     big choices in life. Because almost everything -- all
     external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment
     or failure -- these things just fall away in the face of
     death, leaving only what is truly important... No one
     wants to die. Even people who want to go to heaven don't
     want to die to get there... Your time is limited, so
     don't waste it living someone else's life. Don't be trapped
     by dogma -- which is living with the results of someone
     else's thinking... have the courage to follow your own
     heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you
     truly want to become. Everything else is secondary (2005).
     
Viktor Frankl also viewed death as potentially advantageous. He
encouraged redeeming and optimizing life's three unavoidable
tragedies -- pain, guilt, and death:

     The third aspect of the tragic triad concerns death. But it
     concerns life as well, for at any time each of the moments
     of which life consists is dying, and that moment will never
     recur. And yet is not this transitoriness a reminder that
     challenges us to make the best possible use of each moment
     of our lives? It certainly is, and hence my imperative:
     Live as if you were living for the second time and acted as
     wrongly the first time as you are about to act now (1959,
     175).
     
Yalom believes the awareness of death is one of four life issues that
contribute to efficiency and effectiveness in psychotherapy. (The
other three are free will and responsibility, the meaning of life,
and self-disclosure.) He insists that death should be confronted like
any other fear. Beyond that, it should be scrutinized and in so doing
it 'may serve as an awakening experience, a profoundly useful
catalyst for major life changes (2008, 30).

For those who view life unfavorably, death provides welcome relief.
In Cormac McCarthy's emotionally provocative play, The Sunset
Limited, a nihilistic college professor, in a debate with a devout
ex-convict, expresses his fervent desire to commit suicide:

     Show me a religion that prepares one for death. For
     nothingness. There's a church I might enter. Yours prepares
     one only for more life. If you could banish the fear of
     death from men's hearts they wouldn't live a day (2011).
     
With less intensity, but no less conviction, Shakespeare's Macbeth
characterizes life as tedious and devoid of meaning:

     To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow,
     Creeps in this petty pace from day to day, 
     To the last syllable of recorded time;
     And all our yesterdays have lighted fools
     The way to dusty death. Out, out brief candle!
     Life's but a walking shadow; a poor player.
     That struts and frets his hour upon the stage,
     And then is heard no more: it is a tale
     Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
     Signifying nothing. (Act V, scene 5)

For some, like David Benatar, death is a desirable state although
inferior to never existing at all. The introduction of his book,
Better Never to Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence,
includes this assertion:

     Each one of us was harmed by being brought into existence.
     That harm is not negligible, because the quality of even
     the best of lives is very bad -- and considerably worse
     than most people recognize it to be. Although it is
     obviously too late to prevent our own existence, it is not
     too late to prevent the existence of future possible
     people. Creating new people is thus morally problematic
     (2006, vii).
     
Antinatalism, the philosophical position that places a negative value
on birth, did not originate with Benatar. Twenty-five centuries
earlier Sophocles opined, 'Never to have been born is best. But if we
see the light, the next best is quickly returning whence we came'
(1996). The nineteenth century German poet, Heinrich Heine, expressed
an antinatalistic thought in 'Death and His Brother Sleep (Morphine):'

     Sleep is good, death is better, but of course, The best
     would be never to have been at all (2013).
     
Even noteworthy biblical figures expressed a preference for never
having been. The 'weeping prophet' Jeremiah lamented, 'Cursed be the
day on which I was born: let not the day on which my mother bore me
be blessed' (Jeremiah 20:14). Another man of exemplary faith, Job,
deplored his entrance into the world: 'May the day of my birth perish
and the night it was said, 'A boy is born!' That day, may it turn to
darkness; may God not care about it; may no light shine upon it' (Job
3:3-4).

Conclusion

There are six possible responses to the question: What is the
afterlife state of human beings? One is agnosticism, that is, to be
without knowledge of 'the undiscovered country, from whose bourn no
traveler returns' (Hamlet, Act III, scene 1). The second is
annihilation -- to be reduced to nonexistence. Socrates spoke of this
as one of two afterlife possibilities in the Apology when he said,
'either the dead man wholly ceases to be and loses all consciousness,
or, as we are told, it is a change and a migration of the soul to
another place' (2012, 23). The story of the rich and the beggar,
Lazarus, told by Jesus, provides the third afterlife possibility. At
death, the rich man, who lived a life of self-absorbed indulgence,
finds himself in hell; Lazarus is nestled in a place of comfort (Luke
16:19-31). This story conveys there is post-life judgment followed by
reward or punishment.

A fourth possibility is universalism -- the belief that there is a
heaven from which no one is excluded. This view maintains a
benevolent God would not allow for a condition of eternal torment.
Transmigration of the soul, often referred to as reincarnation, is
the fifth belief and commonly associated with Hinduism and Buddhism.

The sixth afterlife belief is there is no afterlife because there is
no death. The First Church of Christ Science (a.k.a. Christian
Science) teaches that death is an illusion -- a misperception of
reality. This abstruse doctrine requires an explanation. The Church's
founder, Mary Baker Eddy, formalized the following ontological
statement shortly after the Church's inception:

     Spirit is immortal truth; matter is mortal error. Spirit is
     the real and eternal; matter is the unreal and temporal.
     Spirit is God, and man is His image and likeness.
     Therefore, man is not material; he is spiritual (1994, 21).
     
Macbeth characterized life as a 'walking shadow' (Shakespeare, Act V,
scene 5). Eddy pronounced it a dream. She taught that just the
experiences in a dream are not real, neither are the experiences of
what seems to be material life. 'Life in matter is a dream: sin,
sickness, and death are this dream' (Eddy, 2009, 9). She believed a
person who seems to die actually attains to another level of
consciousness, a level that is inaccessible to those who have not so
attained. Heaven is not a place; rather it is the blissful
realization of oneness with God. Hell is not a location, but the
anguished state of mind that believes sin, sickness, and death are
real.

The German philosopher Martin Heidegger taught that death gives
meaning to life. He believed without an awareness of death time would
be nothing more than the movement of hands on a clock and turning over
of a calendar's pages. Like Frankl and Jobs, Heidegger believed living
under an unknowable, inescapable deadline elevates time from worthless
to valuable. Consciousness of death does more than enhance the value
of time. It is a sine qua non for time is to have any meaning or
value at all.

Except for agnosticism, whatever a person believes about the
afterlife is embraced by faith. Reportedly, Steve Jobs last words
were, 'Oh wow, oh wow, oh wow' (Washington Post, 10/31/2011). There
isn't a single living human being who can state with certainty what
Steve Jobs saw in his last moment of life. Until each of us arrives
at that moment we would do well to live well. 'The greatest dignity
to be found in death is the dignity of the life that preceded it.
This is a form of hope we can all achieve, and it is the most abiding
of all. Hope resides in what our lives have been' (Nuland, 1993, 242).

References

American Heritage Dictionary. (1973). Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Company.

Benatar, D. (2006). Better never to have been: The harm of coming
into existence. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Eddy, M. (1994). Science and health with key to the scriptures.
Boston: Christian Science Board of Directors.

_______. (2009). Christian health. Boston: Christian Science
Publishing Society.

Epictetus. (2013). Recovered from
brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/e/epictetus on 05/15/2013.

Epicurus. (2013). Recovered from
brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/e/epicurus on 05/15/2013.

Frankl, V. (1959). Man's search for meaning. New York: Washington
Square Press.

Freud, S. (2008). On transience. Translated by J. Strachey. New York:
Riverhead Books.

Heine, H. 'Death and his brother sleep.' lines 15-16. Morphine.
Recovered from PoemHunter.com on 05/15/2013.

Jobs, S. (2005). Stanford News. 06/12/2005.

______. The Washington Post. 10/31/2011.

McCarthy, C. (2011). The sunset limited. HBO Movies.

Nagel, T. (1997). 'Death.' The grim reader. Spiegel, M and Tristman,
R., editors. New York: Anchor Books.

Nuland, S. (1993). How we die: Reflections on death's final chapter.
New York: Random House.

Shakespeare, W. (2013). The complete works of William Shakespeare,
seventh edition. Bevington, D., Editor. London, UK: Longman
Publishing.

Socrates. Fifty readings in philosophy, fourth edition. Abel, D.,
editor. New York: McGraw -- Hill.

Sophocles. Oedipus at colonus. Lines 1224-31. Greene, D., editor and
translator. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Trueblood, D. (1951). The life we prize. New York: Harper and
Brothers Publishers.

Yalom, I. Staring at the sun: Overcoming the terror of death. San
Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Wiley Publishing.

(c) Max Malikow 2014

Email: malikowm@lemoyne.edu

-=-

II. 'THE SOCIAL AND EDUCATIVE ROLE OF LOGIC' BY YONGHO N. NICHODEMUS

Abstract

This article is a brief analysis of the place of Logic in our social
and educational system. It examines function of Logic as tool in the
molding of the mind to reason clearly, critically, correctly, and
comprehensively. Thus it could help to cure the deficiency diseases
of the mind such as the intellectual inability to question and
analyze critically some established truths; a prerequisite to proper
development. The paper also looks at the importance of argumentation
in the light of the current ontological state of our political
situation, especially the use of false reasoning to establish certain
serious truths and falsehoods. The question of the role of logic in
the educational process is also discussed. We need critical minds
that can gather facts, analyze them, draw conclusion from them and
then test the latter. Our present political, economic and cultural
states need questioning minds which can effectively be developed by
logic.

Introduction

Logic has varied appeals to different people. To most people the
study of logic is drudgery, especially those who are allergic to
order and symbols or rules. It is simply hated by some persons
because they do not want to be logical, since this entails
cultivating the mind discipline of order, coherence and consistency,
being critical and above all intellectual freedom. A study of logic
restraints mental lethargy, a state which appeals to most persons,
and is the cause of many unpleasant social consequences.

The right thing is difficult to find and to do. To develop the spirit
or love for the truth and the hatred of error are equally hard to
attain. But if it is the thing that is needed, it should be
encouraged. Logic is one of the vital subjects in the education of
the person's mental life, especially when we consider the fact that
man is essentially a rational person. Moreso, if a man must maintain
that status, and not allow himself to degenerate, logic is an
indispensable discipline. However, to these persons who treasure
erroneous reasoning and use, logic is bitter enemy.

Whatever the attitude to it, logic is a very important subject in the
development of a valuable school curriculum. To emphasis the value of
the subject, Prof. A. A. Luce says: 'Logic is a court of appeal in
the background; No man can willingly and persistently defy a clear
verdict by logic. Whoever sets out to break logic, as has been said,
logic will break him. Logic is in the air we breathe!'[1]

No one can ignore logic without having the consequences of such an
act. Francis Bacon (1561-1629) a pioneer writer in logic, in his work
Novum Organum compared logic to athletics: 'a kind of athletic art to
strengthen the sinews of the understanding.'[2] Athletics strengthens
the muscles of the body; logic, on the other hand develops the
understanding of man; it heightens the rate of the functioning of the
mental powers or the intellect. Furthermore, to express the importance
of Logic, John Locke (1632-1714) an English philosopher sees its
naturalness when he states: 'God has not been so sparing to man to
make them barely two legged creatures, and left it to Aristotle to
make them rational. It is a native faculty to perceive the coherence
or incoherence of ideas.'[3]

But, like all natural gifts to man, if they are not developed, they
are useless to him. The lack of logic show itself in the deficiency
diseases of the mind -- vagueness, woolliness, of expression, and
feeble grip of the matter in the mind and the havoc these may cause
in the social functions of our society.

Logic as an Educative Tool

But, after all, what is this subject, logic? As a tool, its immediate
effect is found in this descriptive definition: it is that discipline
that develops in one the ability to reason clearly, critically,
correctly, and comprehensively. The deficiency diseases of the mind
indicate that the mind lacks these intellectual abilities which are
inculcated by logic.

Personal and social activities may come to a halt as a consequence of
a deliberate or inadvertent creation of ambiguity and erroneous
reasoning or expressing of things. Everyday discussions, political
campaigns, articles, essays, debates, and so on contain colorful
language that conceals traps of ambiguity, erroneous reasoning and
dangerous seeds of conflict or misunderstanding. Unfortunately, most
theories, principles, and laws, contain elements of value -- judgment
which can be deciphered only by the clear statement or terms used.
Many conferences have been held; much human effort, both in man --
hours and money, have been wasted simply because men have not thought
it important 'to define their terms.'[4]

Sometimes, some scholars and authorities create this situation so as
to exploit it later. A people who violate the calling of logic will
certainly fall prey to this nasty and hazardous trick. For example,
where an authority clouds the meaning of expressions or items, he
perpetuates, at that level, falsehood.

The law of truth entails simplicity, that is 'it expresses the
relation that should exist between the state of mind and the outward
expression of it. In our dealings with others, it means the exclusion
of all duplicity, affection, airs of superiority and the like; it
means sincerity, humility and truth.'[5] Ambiguity, especially if it
is deliberate, is synonymous to falsehood -- that is expression or
meaning that does not 'correspond to what that thing is in
itself.'[6]. The late Prof. Bernard Fonlon's words: 'there should be
conformity between expression and thought, thought and thing.'[7] The
classification, the simplification of thought is important ingredients
to the law of truth.

We are accustomed to pointless discussions in our society. We are
frequently exposed to gibbering in drinking places, on paper, on
radio, and on television and even conferences. Logic is not
interested in such disputation, but with the argumentation that seeks
the truth. It is interested in argumentation, not 'in argument for the
sake of arguing -- being argumentative.'[8] Logic predisposes us to
distinguish between disputation that is aimed at diverting the mind
from the truth such as false propaganda, demagogy and baseless
political gimmickry.

Proper dedication to the doctrines or principles of argumentation
should be the target of good arguers. Thus logic is an important
instrument in the education of the minds, especially of our young
minds.

Educative Role of Argumentation

It is particularly relevant today to understand the role of
argumentation in our society. We are exposed to so much data, and
snap, hasty, non sequitur conclusions, that the citizens should be on
the watch out not to be deceived into actions. It is a serious matter
in the life of an exploited people to have these types of arguments
from its leaders which play an educative and social role. Some
samples of the arguments are:

'Government has built schools, hospitals, roads, and given
scholarships, therefore, it is a good government.'[9] To accept such
an argument is to act illogically or uncritically. Schools could be
built for example, without teachers, and equipment, hospitals could
exist without trained doctors, nurses, equipment and drugs, roads
could be built without maintenance, and scholarships could be given
without being disbursed.

'Pay your taxes because in the U.S.A. no one is accepted for the
presidency if he has not paid his taxes.'[10] Improper use of analogy.

'If the constitution has empowered me to exercise my constitutional
rights as the people's president, then they have no right to question
my actions.'[11]

'The Francophone brought development to the Anglophones so they
should be no complain about the Francophone's activities.'[12]

'Parliamentarians represent the people in parliament, so all the
people are represented.'[13] The error in this argument is called the
fallacy of division. The twenty parliamentarians of the North West
Province, for example, hardly represent the people of the Province.

We should indeed watch for the errors among us because as mentioned
above, they may be 'systematized into a form of knowledge.'[14] They
may soon constitute a body of knowledge for a people, a state and
even a nation. The world is a witness to the atrocities of the Nazi
regime in Germany on the Jews; all caused by the errors of
Nietzschean philosophy and its application on the Jews. This
philosophy saw the Jews as a parasitic race; hence, they should be
exterminated. The French expansionist and assimilationist policies in
Cameroon see the Anglophone as that which has to be occupied and
ingested. The Francophone is an elitist and civilizing culture, the
English culture among the Anglophone is an obstacle to the expansion
of Francophone. -- Yet, it is a good alternative in their views.
Anglophones should virtually analyze this position, especially in the
light of recent Francophone recalcitrancy to fully grant an English
Educational System for all English Speaking Cameroonians. If they do
not want to hand over control to technical education to the G.C.E.
Board, logically the long run consequences are there.

Today science and technology are important elements in the
educational processes of a people therefore, an educational system
that lacks this base is certainly inefficient and can hardly
adequately contribute to meaningful development. We all know that
education, moreso, technical education is an important component of
development in all its dimensions. Therefore, the neglect of the
warnings of logic is a costly thing to do.

In Cameroon, mental lethargy is almost a collective social attitude.
We notice slavish attachment to the systematization of certain
fallacies in logic. Principal among these are the following:

Argumentum ad baculum (appeal to force, the voice, position and even
the arm). Some bosses don't find it easy to convince their colleagues
by the mere force of a good argument without the appeal to the powers
of his boss ship, his rank, his qualification, etc. One simple reason
for this is the fact that these elements have apparently replaced the
need to read and dispute with the appeal to logic and accept the
verdicts of such disputations or the truths therein. For example:
'You have to mark the G.C.E. because I have given the order as your
boss.' An obvious consequence of this type of logic is what we know
as 'justice in the interest of the stronger or might is right.'
Another important dimension to this 'logic of force' is that of money
replacing the convincing of people to one's course. 'Money', Judas
Iscariot remarked 'can move the world.' Those who do not have any
sound arguments or even facts to offer may sometimes employ the
'logic of money' as a shortcut to the real logic where the disputants
present convincing arguments to each other. The danger is that since
money is in the heads of those who acquired it, fraudulently, evil
may be perpetuated and mediocrity implanted. If it is true fact the
very rich sometimes is not those that can sustain genuine
development, one has the right to be worried. This is because they
will frequently not like anyone who might question the origin of
their wealth. The Western world did find it intolerable and they
still do not find it tolerable to have anyone challenge the origin of
their wealth, especially as they came from Africa.

Another fallacy is the argumentum ad populum (appeal to the force of
the numbers of people). This is expressed in the so-called one-party
democracy where a selected few are suppressed by a so-called majority
who might have been manipulated. We also have it in the relationship
of the majority and minority in the country's population. In this
case, the majority, by virtue of their number, does not find any
reason to accept any ideas from the minority. The Francophone in this
country tends to have this type of logic in his attitude especially
when it comes to the interest of the Anglophone. Change has not
always originated from everybody, but from someone who very often is
not accepted by the majority. The May 26th 1990 political phenomenon
is a case in point. The majority of the Cameroonians did not fully
accept it. It was seen as the idea of a small book seller, unknown to
the majority of the people, who were already drenched in the Order of
the day. It needs just one man and the entire globe is saved or
destroyed. And there are many examples of this type of people in
science, politics, religion, philosophy and so on.

Logic calls on us not to kill or refuse an idea simply because we are
in the majority. The society is built on what Prof. J. S. Mbiti has
expressed as: 'I am because we are, we are because I am.'[15] There
is a symbiotic relationship between the part and the whole. Everyone
is important in the development of the society. Therefore, let us
accept individual ideas.

In another dimension, this error is also expressed in the enslavement
of cultural norms, customs and tradition and the law-in all its
variety. Within the force of these factors, the individual is forced
to accept even as unconvincing argument. Sometimes, he is not given
the opportunity to put forward his own arguments. And if he has to do
that, he is again forced to do so within a fixed framework. The
presentation of cases before the procedures is not generally
understood by the litigants. It is also true that most often the
verdict of these procedures is not meaningful to them. The most
regrettable aspect of the problem is the fact that these procedures
are not common among the local people, they originated from a foreign
milieu. The will and penal systems we have with us in Cameroon have
some of these aspects. Some of our traditions, customs and culture
are not understood by the young generations, yet in the name of
ethnic group's tradition and culture they are bound to live with
them. In the voice of Thomas Paine, we may ask, what right has the
past generation to govern for us of the present? The voice of logic
calls on us to examine these questions properly and not just accept
them because they are made by our forefathers, our ancestors, our
statesmen, experts and so on.

Within the same group, we have the problem of ethnocentrism or
tribalism. Tribal feelings usually overwhelm the individual, thus he
is unable to extricate himself from their grip. We know the type of
force exerted by this 'populace logic'[16] Its arguments have always
convinced those who refuse to listen to the voice of genuine logic.
Not every argument by the ethnic love is sound. Recent achievements
in science, technology and communication -- good roads, telephones,
fax, telex, radio, TV and so on have helped to reduce every part of
the world that was far apart -- to the reach of everyone. Even those
people who did not seem to share one's ethnic views have developed
interests and liking for one's ethnic group.

Events around the globe, the sharing of ideas through cultural
exchange programs, mixture of social classes in school settings, and
other public forums exist up the extreme attachment to ethnic groups.
The economic activities of people are other forms of arguments that
are helping to show the unsoundness of the erroneous views of
ethnocentric logic. These types of systematized fallacies do not
constitute all the kinds, but they might be the major ones. They are
not easy to refute except one can grasp their nature and through
analysis, their weaknesses can be shown. Error is very palatable. The
study of logic is a good way of acquiring the abilities we have
mentioned.
The extreme attachment to 'authority' is another fallacy which still
comes under the appeal to force. This time it is the argumentum ad
verecundiam (appeal to the force of authority). An unthinking
attitude and the general intellectual lethargy predispose most of the
Francophones and some Anglophones to adore this 'force of authority.'
It is rather unfortunate that this error has been systematized too.
It has become a body of knowledge called bureaucracy. It has become a
mechanical process indulged in by most persons within our society. In
fact, this routine manner of doing things through strict time tables,
strict procedures, strict organization of offices, and so on, has
helped to take away from most Cameroonians and francophones in
particular, the ability to generate independent ideas, initiatives
and views.

However, if they do, the tendency has been to find support for them
in an appeal to an authority whether this is a circular, instruction,
decree or law. Usually, where these are not found, no one seems to
want to accept the views. Some seem to slavishly cling to these
sources until they know these have gone out of force. At times, they
simply cling to them since without these authorities there is a
vacuum. There certainly would be a vacuum to such persons who have
not developed independence of mind, which is usually the benefit of
training in logic.

This has all along been perpetuated by another system -- the
educational system. Students in our educational system are hardly
encouraged to develop independency of mind. We notice that the system
encourages reproduction of facts through the methods of teaching and
the methods of evaluation. The system does not seem to educate the
students on how to look for facts by themselves through the type of
evaluation process. And we find the same thing from primary school
level up to the university where a graduate is not encouraged to do
independent research, either to make his own notes or produce an
article, an essay or a project. Strange enough, one who observes that
sometimes before one goes out to do research, one has to get an
authorization from an authority? It is very clear that if the
research is going to bring out an unpleasant truth, the researcher
does not get that authorization; it may also happen that the
researcher is even arrested and all his research papers are
confiscated. All these are built-in checks to enforce the logical
error of appeal to authority.

Proper logic develops in the individual the spirit of the pursuit of
knowledge and truth. Logic enjoins everyone to eschew enslaved appeal
even to dogma and religious doctrines. The education of children in
the field of logic, like in philosophy, serves in the 'construction
of a system of truth'[17] and the development of the ability in them
of 'tearing down systems of error.' A good human being must be able
to recognize the error before he can be able to fight it; no doctor
can treat a disease if he has not yet diagnosed its cause. Without
necessarily working with given principles, one can develop the
principles to work with. It is when one is capable of developing the
principles he needs (inductive logic) to work with that he develops
the independence of mind. For example, an inductive study of 'the
regimes' pronouncements on some burning social and political issues
would spare many Cameroonians the hardship they are going through
now. The present regime is characterized by erratic contradictory and
hasty statements. Its governance shows how on ambiguity and
uncertainty. To avoid being fooled, develop the ability not to be
fooled, that is, take logic as your tool.

The Value of Logic in our Education

When people assume, like John Locke did, that logic is gift of God to
man, the implication is that there is no need to study logic again.
Yet we know there is no natural gift is good for use if it is not
refined, or developed. And it is in the educational process that the
natural gifts are developed. The study of logic is a deliberate way
of developing one's natural logic. If man must maintain his status as
a rational animal, then logic must sit at the helm of affairs, it must
preside over the vegetative and the appetitive parts of the human
soul. Logic must be man's academic bed-mate. As the academic
presiding judge, it would constantly remind the one promised the post
of Principal of GBHS, if one accepts to organize the marking of the
G.C.E. on the promise of a post when the Board has not been granted,
an appeal to logic could reveal to that person that he should analyze
the meaning of the term 'promise.' It is logical to investigate the
consequences of the marking of the 'G.C.E.' without the Board having
been granted. It is equally logical that a reasonable action can only
take place after concluding that analysis. This mental function would
prevent thoughtless action. It enables one to take cautious steps in
life's journey. Logic, therefore, orders one's life, moulds and
builds one's personality, regulates one's conduct and shows one what
one should do and what one should not do. As a court of appeal in our
disputation, logic sits at the helm and keeps one on the correct
course as one is tossed about in the difficult sea of argumentation.

Every hour of the day, countless situations arise that call for
advice, and for that advice, we have to look to logic. This is
because it furnishes proof for our judgments, enabling us to
ascertain whether there are true or false valid or invalid. Prof. A.
A. Luce expresses it thus: 'it can be an instrument for ascertaining
new truth; it helps a man to seek and find truth'[18] Most of us are
victims of falsehood since we cannot determine whether what we have
been given is true or not. Some victims have even lost their lives,
property and reputation, as a result of the inadvertent attitude to
the question of truth. A simple test for the truth is the consistency
of one's statements. Quoting Wigmore, in their book Advocacy, Consul
et al notes, 'Cross-examination is the greatest legal engine ever
invented for the discovery of the truth.'[19] The exposure of
falsehood which may be said to be the main function of
cross-examination is to be affected by proving firmly facts which are
entirely contrary to the facts alleged. As Consul and Chandra point
out: 'the more inconsistent facts are provided, the worse the plight
of the opponent's case.'[20] Contradiction or consistency may be
between facts and facts or between statements and statement, or
between actions and actions. These are the inherent nature of
statements.

Our politicians are greatly aware of this fact, and that is the
reason why we say most Cameroonians politicians are liars,
especially, the group of politicians who are in favor of the ruling
regime of 1982 to date. Logic trains the mind to detect these
contradictions and falsehood through enabling the person to gather
data, analyze, draw conclusions and test them. It also enables the
person to ask questions that would expose the falsehood. For example:
why does the government not talk about bad roads and their maintenance
except when we have presidential elections? Is the government sincere
when it says there is money for the ring-road project, for example,
when it says there is financial crisis in the country?

Intellectual alertness is a great asset to any person who has to
succeed in his endeavors. Useful as it is, this ability is difficult
to develop, it disciplines cloven thought, promotes precise
statements, curbs hasty inferences, and clears up ambiguities. This
mental function does not mean that we shall crystallize our thought
through a sheepish adherence to rules and laws-whither they are
logical or some others. Rather, they should when 'rightly dispensed,
tackled and assimilated... give the mind a turn and bent and
discipline'[21] thus indicating to us that 'there is a philosophical
approach to every human question.'[22]

Conclusion

In conclusion, we should note that not much can be achieved by
someone who is not guided by some fundamental and higher principles.
Success in our daily endeavors requires that we possess the ability
to be and be masters of our destiny. To acquire this ability, the
study of certain subjects like logic, the Bible and philosophy is a
prime engagement by our educational system. They will help to
inculcate acuity and sovereignty of mind, ardent desire for the truth
and the search for it. They produce a mind that is 'keen, cold, firm,
serene, above passion.'[23] They train us in the use of reason, 'the
salvation of freedom.'[24] Today, our society hankers after freedom;
we mean genuine freedom that is born out of knowledge, not passion.
Cameroonians are victims of material desires and its enslavement.
Training in logic and philosophy would help to indicate the
shortcomings of this phenomenon. And we cannot build a genuine
democracy on material passion and political fanaticism. In this way
we should bother about the evils of passion and political fanaticism.

END NOTES

1. Luce A. A. (1970). Teach yourself Logic (London: Teach Yourself
Books, impressions) p.1

2. ibid p. 4

3. ibid p.8

4. Geisler, Norman L, and Feinberg S Paul (1983) Introduction to
Philosophy (Michigan; Bacher Book House,) p.71

5. Cameroon Panorama No. 175 July, 1976 p. 14

6. Cameroon Panorama 172, April, 1976, p. 11

7. ibid

8. Geisler, et al op cit p. 71

9. Campaign speeches on Radio during the 1992 Presidential Election
(Gov't Officials)

10. loc. Cit

11. ibid

12.loc. cit

13. Mongo Beti, 'Human Rights Hypocrisy', West Africa No. 3357, Nov.
30, 1981.

14. Mbiti John (1969). African Religions and Philosophy (London:
Heinemann) p.108

15. Geisler op. cit p.73

16. ibid

17. Luce op. cit p.85

18. Counsul J. C. and Chandra G.. (1967). Advocacy (London: Asia
Publishing House)

19. ibid p. 48

20. Fonlon Benard: To Every African Freshman or the Nature, End and
Purpose of University Studies (Victoria: Cameroon Times Press ) p.
(ii)

21. ibid

22. ibid

23. ibid p. 72

24. ibid p. 76

(c) Yongho N. Nichodemus 2014

Email: dryongho@yahoo.com

-=-

III. 'THE BANGSAMORO STRUGGLE AND HOW PEACE IS TO BE ACHIEVED: A
REFLECTION' BY STEPHANIE A. SABARITA

Mindanao, one of the Philippine islands, is said to be the home of
the three distinct peoples, or tri-peoples: the Islamized Moro
groups; the indigenous peoples; and the Christian settlers. Their
distinctness is reflected in their economic relations, political
structures, cultural practices and their ideals and struggles. Thus,
most of the conflicts in Mindanao have been associated with the
pursuit of these different groups' expressions of interests and
ideals. It is the struggle of the Lumads or indigenous peoples for
the recognition of their ancestral domains. It is the Moros'
assertion of their right to self-determination or self-rule against
colonial domination since Spanish rule. Finally, the Christian
settlers also claim their right for land ownership, for example
through the government's land reform program (de la Rosa, 1996).

Before the Spanish colonization, Mindanao was highly inhabited by
indigenous peoples. But in the 13th or 14th century, Islam was
introduced by Arab traders and Islamic missionaries and Islamized
some of the populations of Mindanao. Islam heavily influenced their
social, political, economic, and cultural life. When the Spaniards
colonized the Philippine archipelago from the 16th to the end of the
19th century and brought in Christianity, the Islamized populations
fiercely fought against them though their centralized sultanates. The
colonizers did not succeed in taking possessions of the Islamized
territories and failed to convert the people of Mindanao to
Christianity.

However, despite the resistance of the Islamized populations and the
fact that they had not been conquered, they were still included in
the 'package' when the Spanish government sold the Philippines to the
United States through the Treaty of Paris in 1898. During the American
regime, migration programs and promulgated laws on private land
ownership contributed to the eventual loss of Bangsamoro peoples'
ancestral domain. This turn of events led to the gradual
marginalization, displacement, and disempowerment of the Moros and
non-Islamized indigenous people. Even after the Philippines was
granted independence by the colonizers and the Bangsamoro territories
were made part of the Philippne Republic, the Bangsamoro people
asserted their sovereignty as a people of distinct identity (Kamlian,
2005; Durante, 2009).

Thus, a major factor why the Bangsamoro people have engaged in armed
struggle was because they were opposed against the annexation of the
Bangsamoro territories in the Philippine Republic. Their resentment
about the loss of their political sovereignty, ancestral lands, and
economic resources were expressed by Bangsamoro liberation movements
(Kamlian, 2005) such as the More National Liberation Front (MNLF) and
the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF).

The cycle of fighting, ceasefire, and peace talks has continued up to
this day. Peace advocates in Mindanao viewed the conflict from a
different perspective, but their voices seldom heard above the
conflict.

Guiamel Alim, a Muslim scholar, says that 'the conflict is due to the
historical injustices suffered by the minorities, especially the
Bangsamoro people. They were denied their right to
self-determination. They used to be independent but when the
colonialists came, they lost all of this. They are fighting to get
this back today.'

The Bangsamoro people have a different identity. They are not totally
different from Filipinos but they have their own identity, way of
life, culture, vision, they way they look at things. Again, if we go
back the Philippine history, the Muslims were already in Mindanao
long before. The Filipinos need to recognize this. But the Philippine
history books do not acknowledge this that the Moros existed long
before the word 'Filipino' was known. The Filipinos need to recognize
this, otherwise there will be misunderstanding and conflict.

The Mindanao conflict is not about the terrorism, kidnapping, and
massacre. The conflict in Mindanao is about land. It's about respect
of the culture, system of beliefs. It's not really a conflict about
religion.

Land is the precious natural resources of Mindanao. It provides
livelihood for farmers who make up the vast majority of Mindanao
people. But land is also the source of conflict. Land grabbing and
deposing claims to the same land, are common place. Land disputes can
easily turn to violence and lead to strife among the tri-peoples in
Mindanao, the Islamized Moro groups; the indigenous peoples; and the
Christian settlers.

Peace is possible if the basic rights and traditions of the
tri-peoples are respected.

Mindanao should be a place for everyone. The Moro people, the
indigenous people and the settlers. But, they must respect each other
- the Bangsamoro people should be respected of their
self-determination and the indigenous people should be respected of
their ancestral domain and the Christian settlers for their property
rights.

References

De la Rosa, Romulo (1996). Bringing reality closer to the dream.
AFRIML Davao City

Durante, O (2009). In Peace Education: Curriculum Manual for South
Asia and South East Asia. University of Peace

Kamlian, J (2005). Understanding the Historical Roots of the
Bangsamoro Ancestral Domain Claims in Mindanao. Paper presented at
the USIP International Workshop on Ancestral Domain at the Eden
Nature Park, Davao City. May 24-27, 2005

LaRousse, William (2001). Walking Together Seeking Peace. Claretian
Publications: Manila

Lingga, A.S. (2007). The Voices from the Moro land. Strategic
Information and Research Development Centre. Petaling Jaya

(c) Stephanie A. Sabarita 2014

Email: puchaii_25@yahoo.com


-----------------------------------------------------------------
 Philosophy Pathways is the electronic newsletter for the
 Pathways to Philosophy distance learning program

 To subscribe or cancel your subscription please email your
 request to philosophypathways@fastmail.net

 The views expressed in this newsletter do not necessarily
 reflect those of the Editors.
-----------------------------------------------------------------


[top]
Pathways to Philosophy

Original Newsletter
Home Page
Pathways Home Page